Sharing Transparency for a More Efficient Future

Glossary of Building Rating Terms

Click a term to see its definition.

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Macro Economic Costs

These costs are usually measured as changes in Gross Domestic Product or changes in the growth of Gross Domestic Product, or as loss of welfare or consumption. [Source: IPCC - Annex 1 Glossary]

Managing Building Owners

The managing building owners build and manage their building stocks (e.g. public sector housing organisms (French HLM), bank property companies (French SCIC), some investors, etc.) [Source: IEA Annex 31 Glossary]

Market Barriers

Market barriers consist of a combination of factors including economic activities governed by embedded incentive structures, consumer behaviour, rules and regulations, infrastructure design and construction practices, investment decision making and even cultural consideration. [Source: IEA (2010) Money Matters]

Market Based Regulation

Regulatory approaches using price mechanisms (e.g., taxes and auctioned tradable permits), among other instruments, to reduce GHG emissions. [Source: IPCC - Annex 1 Glossary]

Market Failures

Market failures include principal agent (PA) problems, and insufficient information and externalities. However, there are also other obstacles such as technical difficulties,institutional biases and regulatory failures which create problems to EE implementation.  [Source: IEA (2010) Money Matters]

Market Transformation

Market transformation is the strategic process of intervening in a market to create lasting change in market behavior by removing identified barriers or exploiting opportunities to accelerate the adoption of all cost-effective energy efficiency as a matter of standard practice. [Source: ACEEE]

Market Value

The estimated amount for which a property should exchange on the date of valuation between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arm’s-length transaction after proper marketing wherein the parties had each acted knowledgeably, prudently and without compulsion. [Source: RICS, 2010]

Mezzanine Financing

Mezzanine financing is a hybrid form of financing that combines debt and equity financing. In most cases, debt will be ranked as a preferred equity share. This means that in case of default, it will be senior in priority only to preferred stocks. Mezzanine debt financing is thus riskier than traditional debt‐financing but also more rewarding; it is associated with a higher yield. [Source: IEA (2010) Money Matters]

Micro-Cogeneration Unit

Micro-cogeneration unit means a cogeneration unit with a maximum capacity below 50 kWe. [Source: EU Directive 2012/27/EU on Energy Efficiency]


The MINERGIE® standard is a voluntary building standard that allows the rational use of energy and the wider use of renewable energy. Also includes the quality of life and competitiveness and reduce environmental impacts. The standard requires that general energy consumption must not to be higher than 75% of that of average buildings and that fossil-fuel consumption must not to be higher than 50% of the consumption of such buildings. [Source: Minergie]

Minergie Eco

Adds ecological requirements such as recyclability, indoor air quality, noise protection etc. to the regular MINERGIE® Requirements. [Source: Minergie]

Minergie P

Defines buildings with a very low energy consumption, it is especially demanding with regard to heating energy demand. This standard corresponds to the internationally-known passive house standard. [Source: Minergie]


In the context of climate change, a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. Examples include using fossil fuels more efficiently for industrial processes or electricity generation, switching to solar energy or wind power, improving the insulation of buildings, and expanding forests and other sinks to remove greater amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. [Source: UNFCC]

Mitigation Potential

In the context of climate change mitigation, the mitigation potential is the amount of mitigation that could be (but is not yet) released over time. [Source: IPCC]

Model Reference Building

Values are set as in the trade-off, and a model building with the same shape is calculated with those values. A calculation has to demonstrate that the actual building will be as good as the model building. [Source: Laustsen (2009) Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings]

Moderate Scenario

The moderate efficiency scenario illustrates the development of building energy use under recent policy trends. It is still an ambitious scenario as it also assumes an increase in retrofit dynamics (typically from 1.4% to 2.1% in the EU-27, China - 1.6% and India - 1.5%) as well as widespread building codes. However, these accelerated retrofit buildings and new constructions still resilt in far lower efficiency levels than what is achievable with state-of-the-art solutions: new buildings are built to approximately regional code standards in existence at the time of this study; renovations are carried out to achieve approximately 30% energy savings from the existing stock average. Water heating efficiency measures are not more ambitious than currently existing programs such as the boiler scrappage scheme in the UK and the 'efficient stove initiative' in India. [Source: Urge-Vorsatz, D. (CEU) (2012) Best Practice Policies for Low Carbon and Energy Buildings-Based on Scenario Analysis]

Monitoring Risk

Monitoring risk reflects uncertainty surrounding a local user’s ability to monitor the implementation of a technology. [Source: IEA (2010) Money Matters]